Archive by Author | cristina0509

Zhengzhen Ma(z3325090)-post 4

In this week’s tutorial, we learned abut the indonesian culture. It focus on the wayang  and the occations for dalang given performance, however, haven’t provied sufficient information about what dalang really do and why he is important. I do some extra rearch about dalang. A Dalang is a most extraordinary man. First of all, he is a public entertainer. To amuse a great number of people is not an easy matter. He must be physically trong and healthy; otherwise he would not be able to stand the strain. Just imagine, he is seated cross-legged for nine successive hours. He cannot even have a wink of sleep. He cannot get up from his seat until six o’clock the next morning. He also has to strike the kechrek with his right foot almost incessantly. He handles the puppets with both hands, imitates their different voices, tell jokes at the right times, and even sings every now and then. In addition, he controls the musicians without anyone among the audience ever noticing it.

Dalang are also social commentators. Traditionally when a travelling Dalang arrives at a place where he is to perform, he will make a study of what is on people minds. That may, for example, be governmental measures which people find hard to accept. During the performance, the Dalang will use the pànàkawan, the servants who make humorous comments, to voice criticism which the audience will relate to. According to tradition, a Dalang cannot be held responsible for what is said in his performance. In feudal society one of the Dalang’s main roles was to be a mouthpiece for the people. His ritual immunity protected him. However most of the time the Dalangs were diplomatic in the way they said things, which is how most of Javanese people behave.


Zhengzhen Ma(z3325090) -Post 3

This week’s topic is about cuteness in Japanese business.The cute staff is almost around everywhere in Tokyo of Japan such as the advertisement banners on the subway, digital display screens,Japanese comics and fashion magazines.Many companies, large and small, use cute mascots to present their products and services to the public.

The cute element, which is called “kawaii” in Japanese, is not only a marketing strategy but also has a significant impact on its culture and social and gender roles, particularly those of young Japanese women. Additionally, cute isn’t just a fashion statement like pink lipstick, butterfly hair bands, and pastel colors. It also extends beyond consumerism  to be a cultural statement–a mode of behavior. Cute girls often act silly, , pout and stamp their feet when they’re angry. Due to  growing trend of cute elements, companies such Sanrio came out with merchandise like Hello Kitty. Hello Kitty was an immediate success and the obsession with cute continued to progress in other areas as well. In 1980s, there has been a  rise in cute idols, such as Seiko Matsuda, who greatly believed it would popularize the trend. Women began to emulate Seiko Matsuda and her cute fashion style and mannerisms, which emphasized the helplessness and innocence of young girls.The market for cute merchandise in Japan is driven by Japanese girls between 15 and 18 years old.

No longer limited to teenagers, however, the spread of making things as cute as possible, even common household items, was adopted by people of all ages. Now there are airplanes painted with Pokemon characters on the side, and each of Japan’s 47 prefectures, the Tokyo police, and even the public broadcaster NHK all have their own cute mascots. Currently, Sanrio’s line of more than 50 characters takes in more than $1 billion a year and it remains the most successful company to capitalize on the cute trend.

Kawaii products are seemingly gaining more popularity beyond the borders of Japan into other Asian markets and it’s seemingly becoming more popular in the US, especially among the young anime and manga fans as well as among those who are influenced by the Japanese culture. Thus, cute will continue to be a global phenomenon.

Zhengzhen Ma (z3325090)-post 2

This week’s tutorial topic is politics of dress in Asia. National dress has an influence on self-representation of politicians in a variety of regimes from democratic to authoritarian. Besides, dress is crucial to the constructions of nationhood and national identities in Asia since it has been a marker of identity and status.

The traditional dress in china is qipao. The style of qipao is often tight-fitting. It was developed in Shanghai in 1920’s under the influence of Beijing styles and became popular by socialites and upper class women. It not only creates the image of being traditional in dresses but also reflects the personality of the one wearing a dress. Due to restrictive nature of qipao, it is mainly worn as formal wear for special occasions. They are sometimes worn by politicians and film artists in Taiwan and Hong Kong. Nowadays, qipao is only commonly worn day-to-day as uniform for some people like restaurant hostesses and serving staff at luxury hotels.

For example, some airlines in Mainland China and Taiwan have qipao uniforms for their women flight attendants and ground workers. Many waitresses in Chinese restaurants over the world wear suits and skirts but some wear qipao. In the 2008 Olympics hosted by China, qipaos were the uniforms for the medal bearers.

Thus, Chinese national dresses are converted into creative style but the sense and the symbolism are still incorporated. It has been a significant symbol for Chinese culture that reflects their history, beliefs and the ancient way of living they have back then.

Zhengzhen Ma(z3325090) -Reading Journal 2

In week 8, we learned about Chinese sexual cultural. The article “Online Intimacy in a Chinese Setting” written by Anne was exploring the identities in web marriage of China, especially the youthful player. Web marriage refers to the activities that players can carry out including dating, getting married, establishing a family, raising children and even getting divorce. The players don’t seek to enhance offline experience in Chinese Virtual marriage, thus, anonymity is protected and personal identities are created (Anne, 2009, p409). In this journal, I will begin with the emergence of web marriage and then provide arguments for and against web marriage.

The web marriage emerged in China in early 2000s and become more and more popular. It is reported that 100,000 people had experienced web marriage in 2004 and it increased to 1 million people had played virtual marriage (wan, 2007, p55). The reporters carried out a survey of 80 peoples aged between 14 and 18 so as to know the reasons why youth addicted in web marriage. It showed what 38% of these changed their attitude to real marriage after playing web marriage (Anne, 2009, p412). Moreover, the one child policy also is a factor causing web marriage merged in China and become so popular (Anne, 2009, p420).

The article represented several positive effects of web marriage. It could relive loneliness for the woman who is always staying at home lonely as husband is busy for working.  Furthermore, it can satisfy emotional fulfillment when existence of difficulties in social and financial circumstances cause hard to get married. Besides, it can reduce pressures of school study and also meet their psychological needs. Lastly, the web marriage can make up for those parents who neglect communication to children (Anne, 2009, p419).

However, there are also negative impacts. The breakdown of marriage and abused of moral code are the consequences of use of intimate language. And the virtual marriage is not regulated by any laws (Anne, 2009, p413). In addition, according to Chen Tongming, the arbitrary web marriage will wrap child’s understanding of real marriage and divorce. They will be unable to treat marriage seriously when becoming an adult. He also mentioned web marriage is a way avoiding reality for adults so that it may adulterate the institution of marriage (The Epoch Times, 2007).

In conclusion, the web marriage games have both good and bad impacts. It is hard to say which impacts have more since depends on what way you think about. With various uncertain factors, you can’t know the person very well as reality is different to games. Thus, not many people support web marriage and it is seen as only with short period. Nevertheless, in my point of view, it has more positive impacts since it becomes an appropriate way to communicate with others and release their emotions. Besides, it escapes the problems of real marriage certainly faced with as it more relies on their emotion needs and communication rather than financial condition.


Anne E.M. 2007,  Online Intimacy in a Chinese Setting Asian Studies Review,Vol.31, p. 409–422

Wan Xiping 2007, Lun wangluo hunlian ji qi dui dangdai qingnian xianshi hunlian de fumian yixiang, Qingnian tanxuo 2, pp55-58

The Epoch Times 2007, Young Chinese Love Virtual Marriage Games, viewed at 4Oct, 2012 <>


Zhengzhen Ma(z3325090) -post1

In this week’ tutorial, we listened a presentation about Chinese Contemporary Arts. Mao is the most influential person who leads china and was the first chairman of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China. In his life, he made huge contributions to China in terms of politics, economy, society and diplomacy .He leads China to defeat the Japanese invader and has unified China’s Mainland. On October 1, 1949, Mao Zedong stood on the Tiananmen Rostrum and declared to the world: The People’s Republic of China is established formally. Additionally,  He correctly understood the nature of revolution in underdeveloped countries and laid out the line and strategy of New Democratic Revolution and protracted people’s war.

Like other greatest person in the world, Mao also made mistakes in his late life such as the Cultural Revolution. He launched many mass movements. Many people were persecuted and the society was unstable. Further growth of economy was obstructed. However, the contributions he made are far more than the mistakes. And I believe the decision he made was according to the situation of China. Satisfied with everyone is impossible. We shouldn’t neglect the contributions Mao made as every Chinese knows that no Mao, no new China.

Zhengzhen Ma – Reading Journal 1

The term “metrosexual” is referred as a straight man with an interest in fashion and beauty-care products. Thus they spend lots of time on appearance and lifestyle. Metrosexual significantly changed the original view of men, from muscle and cold men to beauty and handsome men. The editor of Men’s Style thought ‘sulky gentry’ (menshi) is a better description of metrosexual than ‘metropolitan jade male’ (dushi yunan) as it not only implied they lack masculine strength, but also combined sense of individuality and taste. Furthermore, a range of men’s lifestyle magazines influences concepts of manhood in consumer society and represent the demands of middle class.

 Causes of merosexual

There are a few underlying causes behind the metrosexual trend. In current knowledge-based economic society, physical strength is not the dominant requirement for society. Mental work can create social value and the value it creates far more than physical labor. Therefore, masculinity is no longer the only male pursuit of the target, men can have more choices and build their own image. On the other hand, the economic status of women improved greatly and equality in the economic dependence on men reduced grandly. Thus, metrosexual trend is a reflection of the socio-economic progress in gender culture.

 Metrosexaual model

David Beckham can be seen as metrosexual. He has redefined male style with his fashion-forward outfits and skin art. David Beckham never seems to wear the same cloth twice, and always varnish his nails and changes hair style once a week. Although these are feminized actions, his sport prowess and personal ability have made him the most powerful and desired metrosexual man in the world.

Metrosextual trend

In recent years, the awareness of male consumption has entered into China, especially the past two years. Many international brands of male clothes, men’s cosmetics brands continue to enter the large shopping malls. More and more men care about hairdress and skin. Some men even do the facial mask every week. This phenomenon is good to economic growth as it increases male consumption. In my point of view, the misunderstanding of metrosexual consumption is created by both media and consumers. The taste, consumption ability and goals are not the same to each person. Therefore, some people are purely conspicuous purchase. No matter it is perfume, cloth, watch or something else, consumers can only enjoy the use of products when they understand its quality and their real needs.

Real metrosetual

​​Pursuit of appearance, lifestyle and good taste should be in different aspects, shopping is not as important as what they said. Young boys should do exercise to keep fit and dress clean and tidy clothes properly. If they always read fashion magazine and know everything about fashion elements and what sells well in what season, they tend to be feminized as these things are not the main focus on man. Thus, to be a real metrosextual, it is necessary to enhance self-cultivation and live in a healthy lifestyle. This is much more important than caring appearance strongly through spending a lot of time and money. Beauty appearance with intelligent is the highest level of metrosexual in modern society.