National dress is an ‘invented tradition’. That is traditions that appear or claim to be old, but often recent in origin or reinvented. The cloth is often for the purpose of nurturing a sense of national identity and cultural heritage. From the example of APEC2001, where the national leaders are seen wearing the tangzhuang. This piece of clothing has been chosen as the ‘national dress’ to represent China.
The division between national dress and western dress is more than a binary division. There are some contexts in which Western dress can be adopted as national dress. King Chulalongkorn of Siam (Thailand), fashioned himself in the style of European monarchs of the time, seen in painting, photos and coins. It was a response to the threat of colonisation from the West. The Thai monarchy wanted to appear as a civilised and forward country, and in fact Siam managed to avoid the forces of colonisation.
In China, virtuous leadership was associated through the image of the scholar and academic. As such, the Chinese scholarly robe was an important part of a Chinese leader’s apparel. They also wore European bowler’s hats with the gowns, signalling their modernising intentions. They also combined and modified elements of European military uniform and Japanese school uniform to create the Sun Yat-Sen suit, creating a sense of patriotism, combining a sense of democratic leadership with military prowess. Early 20th century leaders in China utilised a diverse variety of dress to signify their modernising intentions with the West, as well as satisfy the traditions of their own country.
Cuteness can be seen everywhere in Japan. It can be defined as lovable, adorable and represented as soft, round, tiny. Many companies used lovely mascots to buy and sell goods and provide customer service. For examples, Resona Bank, one Japan’s largest banks decorated ATMs with the image of the white rabbit, Miffy. The various lovely images have also been applied to the postal system. The lovely image has penetrated into various fields in Japan.
Japanese pursue cuteness can be understood as Japan’s unique aesthetic and social cultural. Traditional Japanese aesthetics advocate humility, delication and childlike innocence. Cute clothing and decorations shape was compact, simple designed, soft colors, and they happen to be the best interpretations of the traditional Japanese aesthetic concept.
Advocating lovely social tendencies in Japan has at least been going on for 20 years, and this trend still does seem to stop yet. Cuteness has been integrated into the modern culture of Japan. In recent years, Japanese young women frequently use the word “Kawaii”. In addition to it has original meaning which is “small and worthy of love” there are also meanings like “good” and “like”. It also can be expressed in a particular object of various media such as animation or game dumping persistent feelings. Girls often make almost stupid moves, preferences screaming or pouting, often angry stomping to express their cuteness. Japanese women like to be surrounded by lovely things, eager to become cute, is not unrelated to the concept of “patriarchal” still exists in Japanese society. Lovely women tended to look weak and helpless, which can produce a huge contrast with the muscular and dominant male figure.
The Mao Zedong image can be divided into the era of Mao Zedong’s image and the image of the post-Mao era. Mao era is the image of Mao Zedong was still alive. In this period of artistic creation of the image of Mao is divided into three stages.The main stage is from 1966 to 1976, the Cultural Revolution First erupted from the field of culture and art. This stage is the heyday of Mao Zedong’s image to promote and the image of Mao Zedong has been deified. After the death of Mao, the meaning ascribed his image evolved into a diversified, by a single political symbol to ideological, cultural and other vector symbols. Since 1989, with the deepening of reform and opening up, economic, and cultural globalization become active contemporary art in China, Mao’s image in contemporary art has been widely used. One side is to promote the theme, the other side is distort vilify. During this period of Mao Zedong respected coexist with the dispute. Countries for publicity historical themes of the historical achievements of Mao Zedong project work is always a focus on the most influential position in the art exhibitions in the positive image of Mao Zedong. The founding leader, Mao Zedong’s image has always been maintained until now. Part of artists expresses the values of the so-called “free” to borrow the image of Mao, Mao’s positive image has been challenged. There are a lot of contemporary art tarnished image of Mao Zedong.
The image of Mao Zedong has political characteristic of contemporary art. Mao’s image in contemporary art or praise, or demoted, depending on the purpose of the artist to borrow Mao Zedong’s image for. Positive image of Mao Zedong contains the patriotic enthusiasm and Mao’s outstanding contribution to the affirmation and glorification. Demonize the image of Mao Zedong, often tends to the temptations of gestures only a small part of the forces with ulterior motives or personal. The value changes of the image of Mao make his reputation in contemporary art “reduce” or “honor killing”. With the collapse of the Soviet Union and the drastic changes in Eastern Europe, China, as only pursue communism after a meteoric rise in the experience of reform and opening up, the achievements become the focus of world attention.
The image of Mao Zedong has been to get rid of the past single political image, by diversified expression transplant visual symbols of the image of Mao Zedong. The Contemporary Art presents the image of Mao Zedong, to be able to express a political culture interpretation of these works, which makes a very strong tendency to own ideology. It reflects the important feature of contemporary art. About Mao Zedong’s symbol borrowing, imitation and transplant to misappropriation of Mao Zedong symbol political satire and personality attacks, thus digestion solemn image of Mao Zedong, and even some work to whitewash, to demonize the image of Mao Zedong deformation. Especially like the Gao brothers made the Mao Zedong wearing miniskirt breasts towering “Miss Mao” sculpture publicly smashed, and do not see any value introspection is an art speculation and traitorous acts.
Nowadays, contemporary art in China has an unprecedented development environment, market packaging speculation and a lot of avant-garde art and various types of sponsorship capital participation. As the artists borrow Mao Zedong’s image, not just the artists personal emotional expression, nor a few irrelevant schema compression on a plane. They should consider the interests of the country and the nation’s emotional, shoulder teachings and social problems reflect on the responsibility.
In China there are many different ethnic groups, I am from Han group and there are 56 nationalities were listed. Actually, most Chinese, do not know much about most of the minority. Such as their culture, their dressing, even the name of the ethnic groups.
The education and the development of technology in minority areas are relatively backward. It’s all below the national average. In recent years, along with the increase of minority area education investment and implementation of free compulsory education, the population of illiteracy in minority has dropped, but illiteracy ratio is still higher than the national average condition and didn’t get fundamental change.
Each minority has different culture and they all exist in the poor place. In recent years, the government starts attach importance to the protection of the minority cultural and provide some benefits for the minority on the education and works. Such as, the minority students can get extra marks for the college entrance examination, which can encourage them to improve their education level. Because of some market factors or other modern media has influence of the ethnic areas deeply, the minority nationality cultural resources continuous erosion and many important minority non-material cultural heritage became lack and face to be lost.
However, I thought the cultural of minority is still hard for most of the Chinese to understand and they are still hard to involve into the society. Most of them are still in the poverty stage and face the problem of survival. Therefore, in the development of compulsory education in ethnic regions, it is necessary to set up a subsidy system for poverty stricken students according to their needs and ethnic characteristics.The government still need to help them to develop in different ways that they can spread their cultural to all the people and keep survival in the better way.
According to the reading of a case study of the reception of two contemporary televisual versions, it reflected the young Punjabi Londoners how they negotiated the culture difference and identity by using TV as a recourse. This reading journal will focus on the discussion of Indian cultural by the Dhani family watching the Mahabharata in English and Indian version.
In the case, Dhani family is a big family that has nine people and lived in a three bedrooms house in Old Southall. The parents came to England 12 years ago after the war. Basically, from their home ornament, it strongly shows their religious and background culture. For instance, line the top of the sideboard of Krishna, Shiva, Vishnu, Lakshmima and other gods. They also have their own domestic shrine and puja or prayers are performed three times a day.
The important thing is about watching the Mahabharata. The Mahabharata is one of the two famous Sanskrit epics in India. It plays the important role in the area of India’s philosophy and religion. Compare two versions of the Mahabharata, the viewing of Brooks’ Mahabharata has aroused the dissatisfaction of the whole family. For example, Ranjit, the youngest son in the family, thought Duryodhana should wear red because red stands for blood, anger and fire. Actually, they limited by their deeply rooted cultural code. They cared about the use of the colors, symbolic of certain qualities and especially because of view the Indian version. The differences really reflect the India culture.
From the India cultural, different identities should have its own symbolic, which the other people can recognize obviously. Such as, you can distinguish the people by tell the strength, the behavior, the wearing. Everything is meaningful in India. This also can be a reason why they cannot accept the English version of the Mahabharata. The English one is more concentrate on the language. As India cultural, they thought the images could create the meanings. The visual is presented creates certain codes that are interpreted by the viewer, such as the icons, colors. The English version was absolutely unsuitable for the India cultural. The viewers can gain a better understanding about themselves and the society by imagine as a source of meaning.
The new TV delivery system is a good way that can relate this Hindus family to connect with India and Pakistani popular culture. As the India government, they use the television to reinforce their value and in fact, one of the most unexpected effects of the liberalization of television in India is how it has contributed to the rapid growth of channels in languages other than Hindi.
In conclusion, two different versions of the Mahabharata have created the different imagine meaning for the Indians. They emphasized on the visual staffs, which was based on their original India cultural background. They can gain the meaningful imagine from the television visual rather than talked more in the English version. Certainly, TV is a media connection for the people to create the visual cultural and shape the individual identity.
By reading the reading about Chinese men’s magazines, I felt so familiar. As an international student from China, I really can feel the difference between China and foreigner countries of the development men’s magazine. In the development of China’s fashion magazine 10 years, it has been present an imbalance phenomenon. Women’s fashion magazines unify the whole country, and men’s magazine has been living in the shadow of the women’s magazine.
Compare to the foreign men’s magazine, which bold out-of sexuality. China’s men’s magazine inside collects a lot of. Although china’s men’s magazine thought their purpose is to the reduced pressure for men. However, they don’t understand the Chinese male need, what do they actually want. Therefore, when these magazines on talking to man about how should you success, what is the standard of success, how successful should enjoy, Chinese man began to feel bored. They need a magazine that can knock them inert and make up the mind.
In a foreign country, especially for the men of fashion magazine, exercise and sex is indispensable two parts. The concentration of sexuality content is a quite good choice. Foreign men’s magazine in sexual expression is more directly than women. And, sexuality is important parts of the male fashion magazine content that can still survival. In China, according to the relevant provisions, the human body of medical knowledge and knowledge of sex education popularity of the works are not the content of the premise can arrange for publishing. This is always a sensitive area. It might because Chinese still have the traditional thought on these things. That is also one of the reasons why China’s men’s magazine cannot develop quite well. The media market for the men’s magazine is still undesirability.